Total Knee Arthroplasty (replacement)


A surgical procedure that replaces worn joint facets of the knee (proximal ends of the  tibia, fibula and distal femur) with a joint of man-made materials.


Degenerative Disk Disease (DDD)


The natural degeneration of the intervertebral disc caused by repetitive stress on the spinal tissues leading to a loss of flexibility, elasticity and shock-absorbing proper­ties.


Orthopedics International. Retrieved September 15, 2009 from

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease



1) Trauma and damage to the hip (blunt force trauma or repetitive cumulative damage)

2) congenital deformity (reduction in blood flow to the joint. It is thought that the artery of the ligamentum teres femoris closes too early, not allowing time for the medial circumflex femoral artery to take over). 


This results in ischemic necrosis of the hip, coxa plana, osteochondritis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

Osteoarthritis may develop in adulthood.

Treatment and Symptom management:

Modern treatment focuses on removing pressure from the joint to increase blood flow, in concert with physiotherapy. Pressure is minimized on the hip through use of crutches or a cane, and the avoidance of running-based sports.

Pediatric Orthopedic and Scoliosis Center. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease.  Retrieved September 7, 2009 from

Hueter’s Sign


Hueter’s Sign is a method of evaluating fracture healing with the use of osteophony.  A bone is tapped distal to the fracture line, soft tissue remains between the fractured fragments if sound vibration is not heard proximally.

Hoppenfeld, Stanley and Zeide, Michael S. 1993. Orthopaedic dictionary. Retrieved September 1, 2009 from’s+pins+and+bone+setting&source=web&ots=qQSLvTxrDR&sig=R-cYaT4T9K36fq-codN8V0oH6ZY&hl=en&ei=hamXSYLfCpWksAPi9YB8&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#v=onepage&q=&f=false