from the greek meaning without sitting.

is a syndrome characterized by unpleasant sensations of “inner” restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless.


  • as a side effect of medications:
  • neuroleptic antipsychotics eg phenothiazines
  • antispasmodics
  • antidepressants.
  • to a lesser extent, be caused by Parkinson’s disease and Parkinsonian-like syndromes.

Chvostek sign or Weiss sign



  • One of the signs of tetany seen in hypocalcemia.
  • An abnormal reaction to the stimulation of the facial nerve.
  • When the facial nerve is tapped at the angle of the jaw (i.e. masseter muscle), the facial muscles on the same side of the face will contract momentarily (typically a twitch of the nose or lips)


due to hypocalcaemia (ie from hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, hypovitaminosis D) with resultant hyperexcitability of nerves.

Palmar Reflex

a flexion of the fingers caused by stimulation of the palm of the hand. The reflex is present at birth and usually disappears by 6 months of age.
this reflex may reappear in later life due to some pathologic neurologic conditions.


Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.

Tinel’s sign

 a tingling or pins and needles sensation in the distal end of a limb when percussion is made over the site of a divided nerve.
It indicates a partial lesion or the beginning regeneration of the nerve.



Having a toxic effect on the structures of the ear, especially on its nerve supply.

Resulting in damage to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, by a toxin.

Infusion of certain medications (eg. Lasix) by IV push at rates higher than recommended may result in ototoxicity.

Facial Nerves


12 Cranial Neuves (Neural Tracts Leaving the Brain)

Vertebral Column, Intervertebral Disks and Nerves of the Body


A bulging disk simply extends outside the space it should normally occupy. The bulge typically affects a large portion of the disk, so it may look a little like a hamburger that’s too big for its bun. Usually bulging is considered part of the normal aging process of the disk and is therefore common to see on MRIs.

A herniated disk, on the other hand, results when a the center of the intervertebral disk (the nucleus pulposus) protruding out through the tough outer layer of cartilage (called the annulus fibrosus).  Herniated disks are also called ruptured disks.

Below CT of Disk Herniation of the L4-L5 intervertebral disk