Anticoagulants

16/12/2009

 

  • anticoagulant
  • reduces risk of thrombus formation

 

Heparin Hemorrhage Risk Indicators

  • bleeding gums
  • hemotemesis
  • hematuria
  • melena

 

Diagnostics

  • aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time or PTT = partial thromboplastin time
  • allows therapeutic heparin range to be monitored

 

Preexisting conditions that contraindicate heparin use:

  • threatened abortion
  • cerebral of aortic aneurysm
  • cerebrovascular hemorrhage
  • severe hypertension
  • blood dyscrasia
  • recent opthalmic surgery
  • recent neurosurgery

 

Preexisting conditions indicative of increased hemorrhage risk

  1. recent childbirth
  2. severe diabetes
  3. severe retanopathy
  4. hepatopathy
  5. severe trauma
  6. vasculitis
  7. active ulcer or GI lesion
  8. GU or Respiratory tract lesion

 

Over the counter medications which increase hemorrhage risk

  1. aspirin
  2. nonsteroidal antiinflammatories
  3. cephalosporins
  4. antithyroid agents
  5. probenecid
  6. thrombolytics
  7. garlic
  8. ginger
  9. ginkgo
  10. horse chestnut
  11. feverfew

 

Advertisements

Diabetes Management

15/12/2009

 

Normal Blood Sugar

 

4-6 mmol/l

 

Hypoglycemia

 

<4mmol/L

 

  • pallor

  • cool, moist skin

  • anxiety

  • restlessness

  • tingling in hands, feet tongue

  • confusion

  • drowsy

  • nausea

 

Hyperglycemia

 

>7mmol/L

 

  • drowsy

  • confused

  • dry skin

  • nausea

  • headache

  • vomiting

Common Types of Insulin

 

Humulin R

Toronto

Short-acting

Humulin N

NPH

Intermediate

Glargine/LantusLong-acting

onset 30-60 min

peak: 15-30min

duration 30-60 min

Onset:1-2h

Peak:4-12h

Duration:18-24h

Onset:3-4h

Peak:none

Duration: 24h

  • administered 30 prior to the first meal of the day

  • a second dose may be given before the evening meal or @ HS

  • may only be given Sub Q

  • may be given IV or subcutaneously

Do not mix

 

Glargine/

Lantus

Long-acting

Onset:3-4h

Peak:none

Duration: 24h


Drug Classifications

18/09/2009
  1. Therapeutic classification: refers to the drugs usefulness in treating a particular disease.

 

  • Different types of drugs manage cardiovascular function

  • dependent on their clinical function

 

  • some may influence clotting

  • some lower blood cholesterol

  • some prevent the onset of a stroke

  • anticoagulants

  • antihypertensives

  • antihyperlipidemics

 

  1. Pharmacological classification:refers to way the drug works at the molecular, tissue and body systems level.