Managment and Treatment of Cancers



  1. Cure
  2. Controlled
  3. Palliation



goal to remove entire Ca

Biopsy Methods

  1. Excision
  2. Incision
  3. Needle Method



Excisional Biopsy

  • used for easily accessible tumors
  • whole tumor may be removed

Incisional Biopsy

  • performed if tumor mass is too large to be removed
  • wedge tissue from the tumor is removed for analysis


Excision and Incision is often performed via endoscopy

Needle Biopsy

performed to sample suspicious masses that are easily accessable

breast, thyroid, liver, kidney

  • minimally invasive
  • decrease the risk of seeding


Local Excision

removal of mass and small margin of normal tissue

en bloc, Wide resection

  • removal of primary tumor, lymph nodes and adjacent structures


Electrosurgery: uses and electric current to destroy Ca cells

Chemosurgery: combination of topical chemotherapy and layer by layer excision


Cryosurgery: uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy cells


Laser surgery = light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation uses light and energy aimed at an exact tissue location and depth to vaporize Ca cells


Stereostatic Radiosurgery: single and highly precise administration of high dose radiation therapy used in some types of brain and head and neck cancers.

Prophylactic Sx

  • Family Hx
  • Genetic Predispostion
  • Potential risks and benefits
  • Ability to detect cancer at an early stage
  • Patients acceptance of post-op outcome


Palliative Sx

goal – comfort

  • ulceration
  • obstruction
  • hemorrhage pain
  • malignant effusions

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