Managment and Treatment of Cancers

 

Management

  1. Cure
  2. Controlled
  3. Palliation

 

Sx:

goal to remove entire Ca

Biopsy Methods

  1. Excision
  2. Incision
  3. Needle Method

 

 

Excisional Biopsy

  • used for easily accessible tumors
  • whole tumor may be removed

Incisional Biopsy

  • performed if tumor mass is too large to be removed
  • wedge tissue from the tumor is removed for analysis

 

Excision and Incision is often performed via endoscopy

Needle Biopsy

performed to sample suspicious masses that are easily accessable

breast, thyroid, liver, kidney

  • minimally invasive
  • decrease the risk of seeding

 

Local Excision

removal of mass and small margin of normal tissue

en bloc, Wide resection

  • removal of primary tumor, lymph nodes and adjacent structures

 

Electrosurgery: uses and electric current to destroy Ca cells

Chemosurgery: combination of topical chemotherapy and layer by layer excision

 

Cryosurgery: uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy cells

 

Laser surgery = light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation uses light and energy aimed at an exact tissue location and depth to vaporize Ca cells

 

Stereostatic Radiosurgery: single and highly precise administration of high dose radiation therapy used in some types of brain and head and neck cancers.

Prophylactic Sx

  • Family Hx
  • Genetic Predispostion
  • Potential risks and benefits
  • Ability to detect cancer at an early stage
  • Patients acceptance of post-op outcome

 

Palliative Sx

goal – comfort

  • ulceration
  • obstruction
  • hemorrhage pain
  • malignant effusions
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