Pneumonia

 

An inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a variety of infectious agents

Etiology:

  1. mycobacterial
  2. chlamydia
  3. fungi
  4. parasites
  5. viruses

 

Four Classes of Pneumonia

  1. typical (bacterial)
  2. atypical
  3. anaerobic/cavitary
  4. opportunistic

or

  1. community-acquired – S. pneumonia, H influenzae, Legionella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  2. nosocomial
  3. imunocompromised
  4. aspiration pneumonia

 

Pneumonia Pathophysiology

  • upper airway defenses often prevent infectious agents reaching lower resp tract
  • pneumonia affects diffusion and ventilation
  • inflammation occurs in alveoli
  • inflammation produces exudate that interferes with O2 and CO2 diffusion
  • mucus causes partial occlusion of the bronchi or alveoli
  • bronchospasm may occur
  • arterial hypoxemia results
  • Lobar pneumonia – one or more lobes are involved

 

Symptoms

  • shaking chills
  • fever
  • pleuitic chest pain
  • rapid, bounding pulse
  • SOB when reclining = orthopnea
  • crackles

 

Treatment:

antibiotics specific for causative infectious agent

Supplemental O2

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