The Common Cold

31/01/2010

 

Viral infection of the upper respiratory tract

Etiology:
1.rhinovirus
2.parainfluenza virus
3.respiratory syncytial virus
4.coronaviruses
5.adenovirus

Modes of transmission/spread
1.Direct contact: person to person
most contagious in first 3 days of symptom onset
incubation period of 5 days

2.Indirect contact: viruses can survive more than 5 hours on the following:
fomites
skin
fingers touching contaminated surfaces then mucous membranes

3.Aerosoled
coughing
sneezing

Manifestations:
nasopharyngeal dryness and stuffiness
excessive nasal secretions
tearing at the eyes
typically clear and watery secretions
inflammation and erythmatous upper respiratory tract mucus membranes
sore throat
hoarseness
headache
generalized malaise
chills
fever
exhaustion

duration – 7 days

Diagnosis

Hx
symptoms, onset, duration

Treatment: OTC remedies

1.Antihistamines
used to dry nasal secretions
may act to dry bronchial secretions
may worsen cough
may cause dizziness, drowsiness and impaired judgment

2.Decongestants – sympathomimetic agents
constrict blood vessels to decrease swelling
may result in systemic vasoconstriction
may elevate blood pressure
should be avoided in those with HTN, heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diabetes

3.Vitamin C
studies show contradictory results
4.Zinc Lozenges – studies also show variable results


Sacred and Profound

30/01/2010

 

Sacred and profound

everything

surround

 

a cry of new life

and the silent apnea of death

 

life loved

life lost

and heart griping

breath-taking moments

revealed,

in between

 

listen carefully

for it is

echos

distant memories

so many of their stories

lives

in a rush

like water in a stream

chatters, gurgles

running along


Chondromalacia

30/01/2010

Abnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage.

May present as wearing away of the articular cartilage, common in the knee joint on the underside of the patella.


Maple syrup urine disease (branched-chain ketoaciduria)

29/01/2010

an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder.

Etiology:

 inability of the body to properly break down branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine)

due to a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex

resulting in accumulation of these amino acids and metabolites to toxic levels within the body

Manifestations:

  • presence of sweet-smelling urine
  • poor feeding
  • vomiting
  • dehydration
  • lethargy
  • hypotonuria
  • seizures
  • ketoacidosis
  • opisthotonus
  • pancreatitis
  • neurological decline

Treatment:

  • monitoring of blood chemistry levels
  • diet low in the amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine


Hirschsprung’s Disease (congenital aganglionic megacolon)

28/01/2010

 

congenital condition in which a section the colon is aganglionic

there is little urge to defecate so the feces accumulate.

  • genetic defect on Chr 10
  • 1/5000 live births
  • Sigmoid colon typically affected

 

  Mechanism:

  • absence of ganglia in parts of the colon
  • no peristalsis occurs in affected region
  • contents accumulate
  • colon becomes distended, in turn results in distended abdomen
  • bowel obstruction may occur

 

Treatment:

  • Surgical exision of aganglionic region

Dream of a Dream (Ngoc Nguyen)

27/01/2010

Dream of a dream
beyond all dreams,
beyond your wildest dreams
Dream of a dream
like you’ve never dreamed before,
dreams only you would dare to dream
and no one else


Total Knee Arthroplasty (replacement)

27/01/2010

A surgical procedure that replaces worn joint facets of the knee (proximal ends of the  tibia, fibula and distal femur) with a joint of man-made materials.