Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes:

  • Beta cell destruction leads to absolute insulin deficiency

Diabetes Type 1A:

  • Immune mediated type 1 diabetes
  • Etiology: The autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells

Diabetes Type 1 B:

  • idiopathic etiology

Type 2 Diabetes:

can range from predominantly insulin resistance and with relative insulin deficiency, to predominantly secretory defect with insulin resistance.

Category 3: Other Types of Diabetes:

  1. Genetic defects in beta cell function, from dysregulation of insulin secretion due to a defect in glucokinase generation
  2. Genetic defects in insulin action, generally pediatric syndromes where mutations are present in the insulin receptors
  3. Diseases of the exocrine pancreas, where loss or destruction of insulin-producing beta cells have occurred
  4. endocrine disorders (acromegaly or cushings syndrome)  – diabetogenic affects from excess hormone levels
  5. Drug or chemical induced diabetes (some diuretics or glucocorticoids) resulting from toxic destruction of beta cells, insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion or the production of islet cell antibodies
  6. Infection induced diabetes (rubella, cytomegalovirus) Autoimmune response causes beta cell destruction
  7. Congenital Disorders related to diabetes (Down`s, Turner`s and Kleinfelters syndrome) disorders result in glucose tolerance related to chromosomal defects.

Type 4: Gestational Diabetes

  • any degree of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy
  • Etiology: a combination of insulin resistance by cells of the body and impaired insulin secretion

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