1) Culture: growth of microbes outside the body of the host. An artificial growth medium is used with an incubator to simulate the pathogen’s natural environment. Cultures are typically grown up in test tubes (liquid broth media) or on agar plates (streak plate and isolation).
2) Serology: Method of assaying antibody levels in blood serum to determine the host’s immune response against a specific infectious pathogen. Specific antibody numbers will rise in the blood when the host is fighting a specific pathogenic infection.
3) DNA and RNA Sequencing:Detection of pathogens through methods such as DNA probe hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.
Martin, Glenn and Porth, Carol, Mattson. 2009. Pathophysiology Concepts of Altered Health States. 8th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia