Tetralogy of fallot (TOF)

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect which is classically understood to involve four anatomical abnormalities.

4 characteristic abnormalities:

  • pulmonary stenosis
  • ventricular septal defect
  • malposition of the aorta over both ventricles
  • hypertrophy of the right ventricle


  • cyanosis at birth (blueish tinge of skin and mucus membranes indicative of inadequate oxygenation of tissues)


  • Surgical repair of affected areas of the heart
  • Complications include arrhythmias (a primary cause of late morbidity) and sudden cardia death
  • Holter electrocarography has increased the detection of these post surgical arrhythmias, allowing for antiarrhythmic treatments.¬†

M.Gatzoulis, S.Balaji, S.Webber, S.Siu, J.Hokanson, C.Poile, M.Rosenthal, M.Nakazawa, J.Moller, P.Gillette. 2000. Risk factors for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a multicentre study. The Lancet. 356: (9234) 975-981.


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