Renal Calculi (kidney stones)


1.      Calcium stones.

  •  The most common type.
  • Typically chemical compostion of calcium oxalate.
  • Oxalate is found in some fruits and vegetables
  • avoiding foods rich in oxalates, such as dark green vegetables, nuts and chocolate may help prevent future renal calculi formation of this type within the body.

2.      Struvite stones

  •  Higher prevalence in women

3.      Uric acid stones.

  • Are a byproduct of protein metabolism
  • Commonly seen with gout
  • May result from certain genetic disorders of the hemopoietic (blood-producing) tissues.

4.      Cystine stones.

  • the minority of renal calculi are of this type
  • Are the result of a hereditary disorder that causes your kidneys to excrete massive amounts of certain amino acids (cystinuria).


  • Pain in your side and back, below your ribs
  • Episodes of pain lasting 20 to 60 minutes, of varying intensity
  • Pain “waves” radiating from your side and back, to your lower abdomen and groin
  • Bloody, cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Pain with urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • “Urgency” (persistent urge to urinate)
  • Fever and chills (indicates an infection is also present)
  • Treatment:

    In cases where renal calculi are too large to pass through the ureters and then out the urethra, ultrasonic waves may be used to break the stones into smaller pieces through a procedure called lithotripsy. 

    Dietary associations to renal calculi deveopment:

    • diets high in:
    • salt
    • sugar
    • soy
    • caffeine


    • maintaining adequate hydration
    • maintaining an active lifestyle

    Chabner, Davi-Ellen. 2007. The Language of Medicine. 8th ed. Saunders Elsevier, Missouri

    Mercola, Joseph. 2009. Who Knew Preventing Kidney Stones Was this Easy?. retrived June 23, 2009 from


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