Current human diseases and their wild animal origins
|Disease||Wild Animal Source|
|Influenza A||Wild birds|
|Dengue fever||Old World primates (lemurs)|
|East African sleeping sickness||Wild and domestic ruminants (cows etc)|
|Vivax malaria||Asian macaques|
|West African sleeping sickness||Wild and domestic ruminents|
|Yellow fever||African primates|
|Chagas` disease||Many wild and domestic mammals|
Monitoring of wild animal diseases and close associted human activity may help prevent or intercept diseases before they become a global threat to humans.
Pandemic: an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
Animal disease to human pathogen:
Steps and process through which a microbe endemic to animal populations is transmitteed to and becomes a human pthogen.
The pathogen is present in animals, yet remains undetected in humans under natural conditions.
Pathogen endemic or epidemics contained within a perticular animal population or species
Animal pathogen has been transmitted to humans
However, the disease is transmitted in one direction only
The animal disease is not transmitted person to person
The animal pathogen now is capable of being transmitted person to person
this person-person transimission of the disease causes and outbreak within the human population
The resulting human epidemic is of short duration
Disease rapidly dies out within the human popluation
Pathogen exists in animals (animal carriers)
Pathogen undergoes a regular cycle of animal to human transimission
Person-person transmission results in long duration outbreaks
Disease persists cycling within the human population
Pathogen now reaches a persistent infection level in humans
Pathogen has now evolved and strains have mutated to be specfic and exclusive to human beings.
Wolfe Nathan. 2009. Preventing the Next Pandemic. Scientific American. 300 (4) 76-81.