Zoonosis

zoonoticdiseasetransmission Zoonosis refer to any infectious disease that is able to be transmitted (by a vector) from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans.

 

Current human diseases and their wild animal origins

Disease Wild Animal Source
Hepatitis B Chimpanzees
Hepatitis A Apes
Influenza A Wild birds
Plague Rodents
Dengue fever Old World primates (lemurs)
East African sleeping sickness Wild and domestic ruminants (cows etc)
Vivax malaria Asian macaques
West African sleeping sickness Wild and domestic ruminents
Yellow fever African primates
Chagas` disease Many wild and domestic mammals

zoonosis

Monitoring of wild animal diseases and close associted human activity may help prevent or intercept diseases before they become a global threat to humans.

Pandemic: an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world

Animal disease to human pathogen:

Steps and process through which a microbe endemic to animal populations is transmitteed to and becomes a human pthogen.

Stage 1:

  • The pathogen is present in animals, yet remains undetected in humans under natural conditions.

  • Pathogen endemic or epidemics contained within a perticular animal population or species

     

Stage 2:

  • Animal pathogen has been transmitted to humans

  • However, the disease is transmitted in one direction only

  • The animal disease is not transmitted person to person

Stage 3:

  • The animal pathogen now is capable of being transmitted person to person

  • this person-person transimission of the disease causes and outbreak within the human population

  • The resulting human epidemic is of short duration

  • Disease rapidly dies out within the human popluation

 

Stage 4:

  • Pathogen exists in animals (animal carriers)

  • Pathogen undergoes a regular cycle of animal to human transimission

  • Person-person transmission results in long duration outbreaks

  • Disease persists cycling within the human population

 

Stage 5:

  • Pathogen now reaches a persistent infection level in humans

  • Pathogen has now evolved and strains have mutated to be specfic and exclusive to human beings.

 

Wolfe Nathan. 2009. Preventing the Next Pandemic. Scientific American. 300 (4) 76-81.

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